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زهرا همایونی لیلی ابوالحسنی محمود صبوحی

چکیده

این مطالعه با استفاده از روش ارزیابی چرخه حیات به بررسی اثرات زیست‌محیطی تولید شلتوک در ارقام مختلف برنج (Oryza sativa L.) ، (طارم هاشمی، طارم سنگی، شیرودی، فجر و ندا) مزارع شهرستان کردکوی واقع در استان گلستان می‌پردازد. این بررسی با به‌کارگیری روش ارزیابی چرخه حیات (LCA) به تخمین پیامدهای زیست‌محیطی کشت ارقام مختلف موجود در منطقه پرداخته‌ شده است. روش LCA، با استفاده از مؤلفه‌های، میزان مصرف نهاده‌های طبیعی به تحلیل پیامدهای مخرب حاصل از مصرف منابع در نظام‌های تولیدی می‌پردازد و با شناسایی، نوع نهاده‌های مصرفی، انرژی مورداستفاده، مواد مصرفی در فرآیند تولیدی، اثرات و ضایعات تولیدشده را ‌محاسبه می‌نماید. با استفاده ازاین‌روش می‌توان به ارزیابی پتانسیل اثرات گرمایش جهانی، اسیدیته، اتروفیکاسیون خشکی، اکسیداسیون فتوشیمیایی، اثر سمیت بر انسان (براثر کادمیوم موجود در فسفات)، اثر سمیت کادمیوم بر زمین، اثر سمیت کادمیوم بر آب شیرین، تخلیه منابع فسیلی، تخلیه منابع فسفات، پتاسیم و آب پرداخت. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که در میان اثرات زیست‌محیطی برآورد شده، پتانسیل اکسیداسیون فتو شیمیایی بالاترین اثر را در تولید برنج دارا می‌باشد. هم‌چنین دو اثر زیست‌محیطی تخلیه‌ی منابع فسفات و تخلیه‌ی منابع آبی از اثرات زیست‌محیطی مهم دیگر در کشت برنج می‌باشند. به‌طور متوسط در تولید برنج، میزان سه اثر پتانسیل اکسیداسیون فتو شیمیایی، اثر تخلیه منابع آبی و اثر تخلیه منابع فسفات به¬ترتیب معادل 033/2، 296/1 و 896/0 ارزیابی‌شده است. در بین اثرات زیست‌محیطی بررسی‌ شده در این مطالعه، سه اثر زیست‌محیطی مربوط به اسیدیته ، اتروفیکاسیون خشکی و سمیت بر آب به‌عنوان کمترین اثر محیط‌زیستی مخرب برای میانگین ارقام برنج شناسایی ‌شده‌اند. همچنین بررسی ارقام مختلف نشان داد که در بین ارقام مختلف رقم طارم هاشمی و طارم سنگی بالاترین میزان پتانسیل ایجاد آلودگی را در بین سایر ارقام مختلف به ازای تولید یک تن شلتوک در هکتار دارا هستند. پایین‌ترین میزان مجموع شاخص نهایی اثرات را در بین ارقام مورد بررسی مربوط به رقم ندا می‌باشد.

جزئیات مقاله

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ارجاع به مقاله
همایونیز., ابوالحسنیل., & صبوحیم. (۱۳۹۶-۰۹-۱۴). ارزیابی اثرات زیست‌‌محیطی ارقام مختلف شلتوک برنج (Oryza sativa L.) در شهرستان کردکوی. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 10(2), 580-602. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v10i2.63502
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