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آرش محمدزاده عبدالمجید مهدوی دامغانی جواد وفابخش رضا دیهیم‌فرد

چکیده

استفاده بهینه از منابع و نهاده‌ها یکی از اولین و اساسی‌ترین اهداف توسعه کشاورزی پایدار است. در پژوهش حاضر، پایداری بوم‌نظام‌های زراعی یونجه (Medicago sativa L.) و ذرت علوفه‌ای (Zea mays L.) دشت مراغه– بناب استان آذربایجان‌شرقی در سال 1394-1393 مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور، اطلاعات مورد نیاز تحقیق با استفاده از پرسشنامه و مصاحبه حضوری با 110 کشاورز به دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که کل انرژی ورودی، خروجی و انرژی خالص در بوم‌نظام‌های یونجه (به ترتیب 48151، 432920 و 384768 مگاژول در هکتار) بیشتر از ذرت علوفه‌ای (به ترتیب 35557 ، 217350 و 181792 مگاژول در هکتار) بود. همچنین، شاخص‌های کارایی مصرف انرژی و انرژی مخصوص در یونجه (به ترتیب 9 و 8/15 مگاژول بر کیلوگرم) مقادیر بالاتری از ذرت علوفه‌ای (به ترتیب 1/6 و 1/4 مگاژول بر کیلوگرم) را نشان داد. از نظر شاخص‌های اقتصادی، علی‌رغم پایین بودن هزینه کل تولید در ذرت علوفه‌ای (1089 دلار در هکتار)، بیشترین ارزش ناخالص تولیدی (6447 دلار در هکتار) و سود خالص (4193 دلار در هکتار) برای یونجه محاسبه گردید. مقایسه بوم‌نظام‌ها نشان داد که در واحد سطح، تولید یونجه در مقایسه با ذرت علوفه‌ای اثر بیشتری بر گرمایش جهانی داشته و نیز اثرات محیط زیستی بیشتری را ناشی از مصرف آفت‌کش‌ها بر جای می‌گذارد. با این وجود، از نظر شاخص کارایی اکولوژیک، ارزش ناخالص محصول یونجه به ازای اثر محیط زیستی ایجاد شده (75/1 دلار بر کیلوگرم CO2 در هکتار و 3/35 دلار بر eq.) بیشتر از ذرت علوفه‌ای (5/1 دلار بر کیلوگرم CO2 در هکتار و 26 دلار بر eq.) به دست آمد. به عبارتی، اثرات محیط زیستی ناشی از تولید یونجه در واحد سطح بیشتر از ذرت علوفه‌ای و به ازای ارزش محصول تولیدی کمتر از ذرت علوفه‌ای می‌باشد. شاخص‌های بهره‌وری زمین، بهره‌وری اقتصادی زمین، بهره‌وری آب آبیاری، بهره‌وری اقتصادی آب آبیاری و کارایی استفاده از کودهای نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم به ترتیب برای یونجه 140 کیلوگرم در هکتار در روز، 5/21 دلار در هکتار در روز، 1/4 کیلوگرم در متر مکعب، 63/0 دلار در متر مکعب، 335 کیلوگرم در کیلوگرم، 1191 کیلوگرم در کیلوگرم و 1826 کیلوگرم در کیلوگرم و برای ذرت علوفه‌ای 583 کیلوگرم در هکتار در روز، 9/22 دلار در هکتار در روز، 8 کیلوگرم در متر مکعب، 31/0 دلار در متر مکعب، 565 کیلوگرم در کیلوگرم، 3553 کیلوگرم در کیلوگرم و 65525 کیلوگرم در کیلوگرم به دست آمد. به طور کلی، نتایج نشان داد که تولید یونجه علی‌رغم مصرف انرژی بیشتر و اثرات محیط زیستی بالا در واحد سطح، از نظر اقتصادی بر تولید ذرت علوفه‌ای برتری دارد.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

آفت‌کش, بهره‌وری آب, کارایی انرژی, کارایی مصرف کود, گرمایش جهانی

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ارجاع به مقاله
محمدزادهآ., مهدوی دامغانیع., وفابخشج., & دیهیم‌فردر. (2018). کارایی بوم‌شناختی- اقتصادی تولید یونجه (Medicago sativa L.) و ذرت علوفه‌ای (Zea mays L.): دشت مراغه– بناب، استان آذربایجان شرقی. بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 10(3), 875-895. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v10i3.62701
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی