##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

مهدیه رجایی مهدی دهمرده عیسی خمری بهروز کشته گر

چکیده

به¬منظور بررسی و تعیین اثر الگوی کشت و ورمی¬کمپوست بر تغییرات عناصر غذایی در کشت مخلوط ذرت(Zea mays L.) ، بادام زمینی (Arachis hypogaea L.) و گاوزبان اروپایی(Borago officinalis L.)، آزمایشی در پژوهشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل در سال زراعی 94-1393 به¬صورت کرت¬های شده در قالب طرح بلوک¬های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل ورمی¬کمپوست به¬عنوان عامل اصلی در سه سطح؛ عدم کاربرد کود، 5/2 و 5 تن در هکتار و الگوهای کشت به¬عنوان عامل فرعی در نه سطح شامل؛ کشت خالص ذرت، بادام زمینی و گاوزبان اروپایی، 40 درصد ذرت + 30 درصد بادام زمینی + 30 درصد گاوزبان،50 درصد ذرت + 25 درصد بادام زمینی + 25 درصد گاوزبان،60 درصد ذرت + 20 درصد بادام زمینی + 20 درصد گاوزبان، 100 درصد ذرت + 50 درصد بادام زمینی + 50 درصد گاوزبان، 100 درصد ذرت + 75 درصد بادام زمینی + 25 درصد گاوزبان و 100 درصد ذرت + 25 درصد بادام زمینی + 75 درصد گاوزبان بود. . نتایج نشان داد بیشترین مقدار کربن خاک در کشت مخلوط در الگوی کاشت 100 درصد ذرت + 50 درصد بادام زمینی + 50 درصد گاوزبان و کاربرد 5 تن ورمی کمپوست در هکتار به میزان (41/0 درصد) و کمترین مقدار کربن خاک در الگوی کشت 60 درصد ذرت + 20 درصد بادام زمینی + 20 درصد گاوزبان و عدم مصرف ورمی¬کمپوست به¬دست آمد. افزایش نسبت اختلاط گاوزبان در الگوی کشت موجب کاهش مقدار سدیم خاک و افزایش درصد بادام زمینی در کشت مخلوط منجر به افزایش مقدار فسفر خاک گردید. تأثیر الگوهای کشت مخلوط در افزایش میزان رطوبت حجمی خاک به میزان 78/20 درصد و تشعشع فعال فتوسنتزی 17/77 درصد قابل توجه بود. بیشترین مقدار عملکرد ذرت (3/17 تن در هکتار) در الگوی مخلوط 100 درصد ذرت + 25 درصد بادام زمینی + 75 درصد گاوزبان و بیشترین عملکرد بادام زمینی (5/15 تن در هکتار) در الگوی مخلوط 100 درصد ذرت + 75 درصد بادام زمینی + 25 درصد گاوزبان به¬دست آمد. نسبت برابری زمین در همه الگوهای مخلوط بیشتر از یک بود و بیشترین میزان نسبت برابری زمین در الگوی کشت مخلوط 100 درصد ذرت + 75 درصد بادام زمینی + 25 درصد گاوزبان و مصرف 5 تن استفاده ورمی¬کمپوست در هکتار به¬دست آمد که نشان¬دهنده سودمندی کشت مخلوط نسبت به تک¬کشتی بود.

جزئیات مقاله

مراجع
Ahmad, Z., Mezori, H.A.M., and Duhoky, M.M.S. 2008. Effect of intercropping systems and nitrogen fertilizer on yield, yield components of corn (Zea mays L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogea L.). Journal of Dohuk University 11(1): 206-214.
Andersen, M.K., Hauggard-Nielsen, H., Ambus, P., and Jensen, E.S. 2005. Biomass production, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and inorganic N use in dual and tri-component annual intercrops. Plant and Soil 266: 273-287.
Anthony, R.S., and Rene, C.V. 2008. Land equivalent ratios, Light interception, and water in annual intercrops in the presence or absence of in-crop herbicides. Agronomy Journal 100: 1145-1154.
Azizi, A., Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 2015. Evaluating the effects of the interaction of supply and plant diversity on light use efficiency in different patterns. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 12(4): 544-566. (In Persian with Engish Summary)
Azizi, A., Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 2015. Evaluating the effects of the interaction of nutrient resource and plant diversity on inputs use efficiency in different cropping systems. Iranian Journal of Aroecology 7(1): 1-19. (In Persian with Engish Summary)
Bantilan, R.T., Palada, M., and Harwood, R.R. 1976. Integrated weed management, I. Key factors offecting weed/crop balance. Philippine Weed Science, Bulletin 1: 1-14.
Berdhal, J.D., Karn, J.F., and Herdrickson, J.R. 2001. Dry matter yield of cool season grass Monocultures and grass-alfalfa binary mixtures. Agronomy Journal 93: 463-467.
Berecz, K., Kismanyoky, T., and Debreczeni, K. 2005. Effect of organic matter recycling in long-term fertilization trials and model pot experiments. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 36: 191-202.
Chhipa, B.R., and Lal, P. 1995. Na/K ratios as the basis of salt tolerance in wheat. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 46: 533-539.
Chowdhury, M.K., and Rosario, E.L. 1994. Comparison of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium utilization efficiency in maize-mungbean intercropping. Agricultural Science 122: 193-199.
Claudio, P.J., Raphael B., Alves, F., Kamiila, L.R., Brunade, S.N., and Priscila, M.B. 2009. Zn (ll) adsorption from syntheyic solution and kaolin wastewater on vermicompost. Science of the Total Environment 162: 804-811.
Courtney, R.G., and Mullen, G.J. 2008. Soil quality and barley growth as influenced by the land application of two compost types. Bioresource Technology 99: 2913-2918.
Dahmardeh, M., and Hodiani, A. 2016. Assessment of soil elements in intercropping based on mathematical modeling. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 218-224.
Dahmardeh, M., Ghanbari, A., Syahsar, B.A., and Ramrodi, M. 2010. The role of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) on yield and soil chemical properties. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5(8): 631-636.
Dalal, R.C. 1974. Effect of intercropping maize with pigeon peas on grain yield and nutrient uptake. Experimental Agriculture 10: 219-224
Furbank, R.T., and Badger, R. 1983. Photorespiratory characteristics of the inflorescence. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 26: 25-30.
Ghosh, P.K. 2004. Growth, yield, competition and economics of groundnut /cereal fodder intercropping systems in the semi- arid tropics of India. Field Crops Research 88: 227-237.
Gliessman, S.R. 1997. Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture. Arbor Press 357 pp.
Gustave, N.M., Jean, F., Ois, L., and Xavier, D. 2008. Shoot and root competition in potato/maize intercropping, Effects on growth and yield. Environmental and Experimental Botany 64: 180-188.
Hashem, A., Radosovich, S.R., and Dick, R. 2000. Competition effects on yield, tissue nitrogen, and germination of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Italian raygrass (Lolium multiflorium). Weed Technology 14: 718-725.
He, T., and Cramer, G.R. 1993. Salt tolerance of rapid-cycling Brassica species in relation Potassium/Sodium ratio and selectivity at the whole plant and callous levels. Journal of Plant Nutrition 16(7): 1263-1277.
Hodiani Mehr, A., Dahmardeh, M., Khammari, A., and Asghari Poor, M. 2016. Evaluation of tillage systems on agronomical aspects in roselle-green gram intercropping using replacement method. Iranian Journal of Filed Crop Science 47(2): 265-276. (In Persian with Engish Summary)
Inal, A., Gunes, A., Zhang, F., and Cakmak, I. 2007. Peanut/maize intercropping induced changes in rhizospher and nutrient concentrations in shoots. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 45: 350-356.
Innis, W.H. 1997. Intercropping and the Scientific Basis of Traditional Agriculture (1st Ed.). London: Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.
Jeybal, H., and Kupposwany, G. 2001. Recycling of organic wastes for the production of vermicompost and its vosponsec in rice-legume cropping system and soil fertility. European Journal of Agronomy 15: 153-170.
Karpenstein-Machan, M., and Stuelpnagel, R. 2000. Biomass yield and nitrogen fixation of legumes monocropped and intercropped with rye and rotation effects on a subsequent maize crop. Plant and Soil 218: 215-232.
Li, L., Tang, C., Rengel, Z., and Zhang, F.S. 2004. Calcium, magnesium and microelement Uptake as affected by phosphorus sources and interspecific root Interactions between wheat and chickpea. Plant and Soil 261: 29-37.
Li, W., Li, L., Sun, J., Guo, T., Zhang, F., Bao, X., Peng, A., and Tang, C. 2005 Effects of intercropping and nitrogen application on nitrate present in the profile of an OrthicAnthrosol in Northwest China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 105: 483-491.
Lim, S.L., Wu, T.Y., Lim, P.N., and Shak, K.P.Y. 2014: The use of vermicompost in organic farming: overview, effects on soil and economics. Science of Food and Agriculture 95(6): 1143-1156.
Kamkar, B., Zahed, M., Sadat Hoseeini, R., Golchin, A., and Ghadirian, R. The principles of planting patterns designing (overview and case studies). 11nd Iranian Crop Science Congress in date 2012-0.9-0.4 in Karaj pp. 1514-1518. (In Persian)
Khodashenas, A. 1996. The effects of planting date, row spacing, and bush density on yield and pharmaceutical active substances of borage (Borago officinalis L.) in Esfahan. MSc Dissertation of Agriculture. Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran. (In Persian with Engish Summary)
Koochecki, A., Shabahang, J., Khorramdel, S., and Azimi, R. 2010. The effect of irrigation intervals and intecropped marjoram (Origanum vulgare) with saffron (Crocus sativus) on possible cooling effect of corms for climate change adaptation. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. (In Persian with English Summary)
Koocheki, A., Shabahang, J., Khorramdel, S., and Amin-Ghafouri, A. 2012. Row intercropping of borage (Borago officinalis L.) with bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on possible evaluating of the best strip width and assessing of its ecological characteristics. Journal of Agroecology 4(1): 1-11. (In Persian with English Summary)
Makkizadeh Tafti, M., Tavakol Afshari, R., Majnoon Hosseini, N., and Naghdi Badi, H.A. 2008. Evaluation of salinity tolerance and absorption of salt by borage (Borago officinalis L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 24(3): 253- 262. (In Persian with English Summary)
Malakouti, M.J. 1997. The effects of using balabced fertilizers and the role of microelements in qualitative and quantitative improvement of agricultural products and the environment. Proceedings of the Second National Conference on the Effective Use of Fertilizers and Toxins p. 48-52.
Manivannan, S., Balamurugan, M., Parthasarathi, K., Gunasekaran, G., and Ranganathan, L.S. 2009. Effect of vermicompost on soil fertility and crop productivity-Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Environmental Biology 30: 275-281.
Melero, S., Porras, J.C.R., Herencia, J.F., and Madejon, E. 2006. Chemical and biochemical properties in a silty loam soil under conventional and organic management. Soil and Tillage Research 90: 162-170.
Mirzaei, R., Kambozia, J., Sabahi, H., and Mahdavi, A. 2009. Effect of different organic fertilizers on soil physicochemical properties, production and biomass yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Iranian Journal of Crops Researches 7(1): 257-267. (In Persian with English Summary)
Neumann, G., and Romheld, V. 1999. Root excretion of carboxylic acids and protons in phosphorus-deficient plants, Plant and Soil 211: 121-130.
Nzabi, A.W., Makini, F., Onyango, M., Kidula, N., Muyonga, C.K., Miruka, M., Mutal, E., and Gesare, M. 1999. Effect of intercropping legume with maize on soil fertility and maize yield. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Kisii Regional Reacerch Center. P.O.Box 523, Kisii.
Nielsen, H.H., and Jensen, E.S. 2005. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops, Plant and Soil 274: 237-250.
Odlare, M., Pell, M, and Svensson, K. 2008. Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues. Waste Management 28: 1246–1253.
Ofari, F., and Stern, W.R. 1987. Cereal-legume intercropping system. Advance in Agronomy 41: 41-90.
Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., and Dean, L.A. 1954. Estimation of Available Phosphorous in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate; U.S. Department of Agriculture: Washington, D.C., USDA Circ. 939 p.
Pandita, A.K., Saha, M.H., and Bali, A.S. 2000. Effect of row ratio in cereal-legume intercropping systems on productivity and competition functions under Kashmir conditions. Indian Journal of Agronomy 45: 48-53.
Raja Sekar, K., and Karmegan, N. 2010. Earthworm casts as an alternate carrier material for biofertilizers: Assessment of endurance and viability of Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Scientia Horticulturae 124: 286-289.
Rajaii, M., and Dahmardeh, M. 2014. The evaluation of corn and peanut intercropping on efficiency of use the environmental resource and soil fertility. Journal of Agricultural Science 6(4): 99-108.
Rengel, Z. 2002. Genetic control of root exudation. Plant and Soil 245: 59-70.
Rezaei-Chiyaneh, E. 2016. Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative traits of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in different intercropping patterns with bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agroecology 8(2): 263-280. (In Persian with English Summary)
Singh, Y., Singh, B., Ladha, J.K., Khind, C.S., Gupta, R.K., Meelu, O.P., and Pasuquin, E. 2004. Long-term effects of organic inputs on yield and soil fertility in the rice-wheat. Soil Science Society of American Journal 68: 846-853.
Srinivasarao, C., Rupa, T.R., Subba Rao, A., Ramesh, G., and Bansal, S.K. 2000. Release kinetics of nonexchangeable potassium by different extractants from soils of varying mineralogy and depth. Communications in Soil Sciences and Plant Analysis 37: 473-491.
Storey, R., and Wyn Jones, R.G. 1978. Salt stress and comparative physiology in the Gramineae. 1. Ion relations of two salt- and water-stressed barley cultivars, California Mariout and Arimar. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 5: 801-816.
Yilmaz, S., Atak, M., and Erayman, M. 2008. Identification of advantages of maize – legume intercropping over solitary cropping through competition indices in the east Mediterranean region. Turkish Journal of Agriculture of Forestry 32: 111-119.
Walkley, A., and Black, I.A. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37: 29-38.
Zheng, Y., Zhang, F., and Li, L. 2003. Iron availability as affected by soil moisture in intercropped peanut and maize. Journal of Plant Nutrition 26: 2425-2437.
Zhang, F.S., and Li, L. 2003. Using competitive and facilitative interactions in intercropping system enhance crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency. Plant and Soil 248: 305-312.
Zhang, L., Vander Werf, W., Bastiaans, L., Zhang, S., Li, B., and Spiertz, J.H.J. 2008. Light interception and utilization in relay intercrops of wheat and cotton. Field Crops Research 107: 29-42.
Zhu, J.K. 2003. Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 6: 441-445.
ارجاع به مقاله
رجاییم., دهمردهم., خمریع., & کشته گرب. (۱۳۹۶-۰۲-۲۳). تأثیر الگوی کشت و ورمی¬کمپوست بر تغییرات عناصر غذایی خاک در کشت مخلوط ذرت (Zea mays L.)، بادام زمینی (Arachis hypogaea L.)و گاوزبان اروپایی (Borago officinalis L.). بوم شناسی کشاورزی, 10(2), 547-564. https://doi.org/10.22067/jag.v10i2.62071
نوع مقاله
مقالات

مقالات بیشتر خوانده شده از همین نویسنده

1 2 > >>